Screening and Diagnosis
Risk factors for bladder cancer include the following:
- Being exposed to certain substances at work, such as rubber, certain dyes and textiles, paint, and hairdressing supplies.
- A diet high in fried meats and fat.
- Being older, male, or white.
- Having an infection caused by a certain parasite.
Possible signs of bladder cancer
- Blood in the urine (slightly rusty to bright red in color).
- Frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without being able to do so.
- Pain during urination.
- Lower back pain.
Diagnosing Bladder Cancer
The following tests and procedures may be used to diagnose bladder cancer:
- CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly.
- Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
- Internal exam: An exam of the vagina and/or rectum. The doctor inserts gloved fingers into the vagina and/or rectum to feel for lumps.
- Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to find out if cancer is present in these organs. A contrast dye is injected into a vein. As the contrast dye moves through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, x-rays are taken to see if there are any blockages.
- Cystoscopy: A procedure to look inside the bladder and urethra to check for abnormal areas. A cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. A cystoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy for bladder cancer is usually done during cystoscopy. It may be possible to remove the entire tumor during biopsy.
- Urine cytology: Examination of urine under a microscope to check for abnormal cells.